The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (JHUSOM) is the medical school of Johns Hopkins University, a private research university in Baltimore, Maryland. Founded in 1893, the School of Medicine shares a campus with Johns Hopkins Hospital and Johns Hopkins Children's Center, established in 1889.
Johns Hopkins School of Medicine consistently ranks among the top medical schools in the United States in terms of research grants awarded by the National Institutes of Health, and other factors.
The founding physicians of Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, sometimes referred to as the "Four Physicians", were pathologist William Henry Welch (1850–1934), the first dean of the school and a mentor to generations of research scientists,; Canadian, internist William Osler (1849–1919), who was perhaps the most influential physician of the late 19th and early 20th centuries and the author of The Principles and Practice of Medicine (1892), surgeon William Stewart Halsted (1852–1922), who revolutionized surgery by insisting on subtle skill and technique and strict adherence to sanitary procedures, and gynecologist Howard Atwood Kelly (1858–1943), a gynecological surgeon credited with establishing gynecology as a specialty and being among the first to use radium in the treatment of cancer.
Johns Hopkins School of Medicine opened 17 years after its original visionary benefactor Johns Hopkins (1795–1873) died with large financial assistance offered by several wealthy daughters of Baltimore's business elite on condition that the medical school be open equally to students of both sexes, which resulted in the medical school being one of the first co-educational medical colleges.
The School of Medicine shares a campus with the Johns Hopkins Hospital and Johns Hopkins Children's Center, which serve as the school's main teaching hospitals along with several other regional medical centers, including Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center on Eastern Avenue in East Baltimore, Howard County General Hospital near Ellicott City, Suburban Hospital in Bethesda, Sibley Memorial Hospital in Washington, D.C., and Johns Hopkins All Children's Hospital in St. Petersburg, Florida. Together, they form an academic health science centre.
Johns Hopkins School of Medicine is the home of many medical advancements and contributions, including the first of many to admit women and to introduce rubber gloves, which provided a sterile approach to conducting surgical procedures. Johns Hopkins has also published The Harriet Lane Handbook, an influential source of medical information for pediatricians, for over 60 years. The Lieber Institute for Brain Development is an affiliate of the school.
According to the Flexner Report, Hopkins has served as the model for American medical education.
Its major teaching hospital, the Johns Hopkins Hospital, was ranked the top hospital in the United States every year from 1991 to 2011 by U.S. News & World Report. In 2023-2024, U.S. News & World Report ranked Hopkins #2 among all medical schools in the United States.
Upon matriculation, medical students at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine are divided into four colleges named after famous Hopkins faculty members who have had an impact in the history of medicine, Florence Sabin, Vivien Thomas, Daniel Nathans, and Helen Taussig. The colleges were established to "foster camaraderie, networking, advising, mentoring, professionalism, clinical skills, and scholarship" in 2005.
In each incoming class, 30 students are assigned to each college, and each college is further subdivided into six molecules of five students each. Each molecule is advised and taught by a faculty advisor, who instructs them in Clinical Foundations of Medicine, a core first-year course, and continues advising them throughout their 4 years of medical school. The family within each college of each molecule across the four years who belong to a given advisor is referred to as a macromolecule. Every year, the colleges compete in the "College Olympics" in late October, a competition that includes athletic events and sports, as well as art battles and dance-offs.
Thomas College was named for Vivien Thomas, the surgical technician who was the driving force behind the successful creation of the Blalock-Taussig Shunt procedure, later renamed the Blalock-Taussig-Thomas shunt. Thomas, an African American, did not initially receive rightful credit due to racial discrimination. His story was detailed in the 2004 HBO documentary Something the Lord Made
The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine is led by Ronald J. Daniels, president of Johns Hopkins University, and Theodore DeWeese, dean of the medical faculty and chief executive officer of Johns Hopkins Medicine. Kevin Sowers serves as president of Johns Hopkins Health System and executive vice president of Johns Hopkins Medicine.
Johns Hopkins Medicine is a joint collaboration between the School of Medicine and Johns Hopkins Health System, which includes six hospitals. The Dean of the School of Medicine also serves as the CEO of Johns Hopkins Medicine.
Since its founding, eighteen Nobel laureates have been associated with the School of Medicine as alumni or and faculty. Johns Hopkins University as a whole counts 38 Nobel laureates.
- Gregg L. Semenza – Faculty, pediatrician, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 2019
- William Kaelin Jr. – former resident, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 2019
- Carol Greider – Faculty, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 2009
- Richard Axel – MD 1971, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 2004
- Peter Agre – MD 1974, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 2003
- Paul Greengard – PhD 1953, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 2000
- Henry David Abraham – MD 1967, Nobel Peace Prize (co-recipient), 1985
- David H. Hubel – former resident, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1981
- Torsten Wiesel – Faculty, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1981
- Hamilton O. Smith – Faculty, MD 1956, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1978
- Daniel Nathans – Faculty, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1978
- Haldan Keffer Hartline – MD 1927, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1967
- Francis Peyton Rous – MD, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1966
- Joseph Erlanger – MD 1899, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1944
- Herbert Spencer Gasser – MD 1915, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1944
- George Minot – Assistant in Medicine, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1934
- George Whipple – MD 1905, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1934
- Thomas Hunt Morgan – PhD 1890, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1933
Notable faculty and alumni
- John Jacob Abel, pharmacologist, founder and chair of the first department of pharmacology in the U.S.
- Fuller Albright, endocrinologist who discovered Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy and McCune–Albright syndrome
- Dorothy Hansine Andersen, identified cystic fibrosis and Andersen's disease
- John Auer, physiologist and pharmacologist, namesake of the Auer rod in acute myeloid leukemia
- Stanhope Bayne-Jones, bacteriologist and U.S. Army Brigadier General
- Jeremy M. Berg, former director of biophysics and biophysical chemistry and co-author of the Biochemistry textbook
- George Packer Berry, dean of Harvard Medical School
- John Shaw Billings, a Civil War surgeon who pioneered hygiene
- Alfred Blalock, developed field of cardiac surgery, including the Blalock–Taussig shunt
- Mary Blue, neurobiologist and computational neurologist
- Eugene Braunwald, cardiologist, editor of Braunwald's Heart Disease, now in its 11th edition, and longtime editor of Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine
- Max Brödel, medical illustrator who illustrated for Harvey Cushing, William Halsted, and Howard Atwood Kelly
- William R. Brody, radiologist, president of the Salk Institute, and former president of Johns Hopkins University
- Ernesto Bustamante, biochemist and molecular biologist and former chief of the National Institute of Health of Peru, elected Member of Parliament of Peru
- Karen Carroll (pathologist), infectious disease pathologist and medical microbiologist, professor of pathology and Director of the Division of Medical Microbiology
- Ben Carson, pediatric neurosurgeon and U.S. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom
- Caroline August Chandler, associate professor of pediatrics
- Patricia Charache, microbiologist and infectious disease specialist
- Denton Cooley, cardiovascular surgeon
- John Fielding Crigler, pediatrician who first described Crigler–Najjar syndrome
- Thomas Stephen Cullen, helped establish the first gynecologic pathology laboratory and advanced understanding of endometriosis and other gynecologic conditions
- Harvey Cushing, considered the "father of modern neurosurgery" who identified Cushing's syndrome and the Cushing ulcer
- Walter Dandy, neurosurgeon and the namesake of the Dandy–Walker syndrome
- Daniel C. Darrow, pediatrician and clinical biochemist
- George Delahunty, physiologist and endocrinologist and the Lilian Welsh Professor of Biology at Goucher College
- Catherine Clarke Fenselau, biochemist and mass spectrometrist
- Joseph F. Fraumeni Jr., described Li–Fraumeni syndrome
- Irwin Freedberg, former director of the school's dermatology department
- Ernest William Goodpasture, pathologist who described Goodpasture syndrome
- Alan I. Green, psychiatrist and professor at Geisel School of Medicine
- William Halsted, considered the "father of modern surgery" and one of four founders of Johns Hopkins Medicine
- J. William Harbour, ocular oncologist, cancer researcher, and vice chairman at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute at the University of Miami's Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine
- Andy Harris, U.S. Congressman
- Tinsley R. Harrison, cardiologist and editor of the first five editions of Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine
- Arthur D. Hirschfelder, apprentice under William Osler and Johns Hopkins' first full-time cardiologist
- Leroy Hood, invented automated DNA and protein sequencing, Lasker Award winner, and entrepreneur
- Howard A. Howe, polio researcher
- Ralph H. Hruban, pancreatic cancer expert who authored over 700 peer-reviewed manuscripts and five books and was recognized by Essential Science Indicators as the most highly cited pancreatic cancer scientist in the world
- Kay Redfield Jamison, psychologist and psychiatry professor and author of An Unquiet Mind
- James Jude, "father of CPR" and thoracic surgeon who developed cardiopulmonary resuscitation
- William Kaelin Jr., Nobel Prize recipient and internal medicine physician
- Leo Kanner, "father of child psychiatry" who first described autism in Autistic Disturbances of Affective Contact, published in 1943
- Chester Keefer, "penicillin czar" during World War II who managed distribution and allocation of the new drug for civilian uses in the U.S., and dean of Boston University School of Medicine
- Howard Kelly, gynecologist credited with establishing gynecology as a specialty
- Harry Klinefelter, rheumatologist, endocrinologist, and namesake of Klinefelter syndrome
- Ricardo J Komotar, neurosurgeon and director of the University of Miami's Brain Tumor Initiative, the University of Miami neurosurgery residency program, and the University of Miami Surgical Neurooncology residence program
- William B. Kouwenhoven, electrical engineer who developed the external defibrillator and helped develop cardiopulmonary resuscitation
- Albert L. Lehninger, former chairman of the school's biological chemistry department and author of 'Principles of Biochemistry, a widely-used textbook
- Bruce Lerman, cardiologist and chief of the Division of Cardiology and director of the Cardiac Electrophysiology Laboratory at Weill Cornell Medicine and New York Presbyterian Hospital
- Michael Lesch, physician who first described Lesch–Nyhan syndrome
- Frederick Masoudi cardiologist, researcher, and medical academic with expertise in cardiovascular outcomes research, clinical registries, and quality measurement
- Howard Markel, pediatrician, historian of medicine, medical journalist; Guggenheim Fellow, and member of the National Academy of Medicine
- Donovan James McCune, first described McCune–Albright syndrome
- Paul R. McHugh, former psychiatrist-in-chief at Johns Hopkins
- Victor A. McKusick, developed the field of medical genetics, namesake of McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, and founder of OMIM
- John Menkes, first identified Menkes disease
- Adolf Meyer, first psychiatrist-in-chief at Johns Hopkins
- Vernon Mountcastle, neuroscientist and Lasker Award winner
- Victor Assad Najjar, pediatrician who first described Crigler–Najjar syndrome
- William Nyhan, pediatrician who first described Lesch–Nyhan syndrome
- William Osler, considered the "father of modern medicine", discovered Osler–Weber–Rendu syndrome, a hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia
- Monica E. Peek, Ellen H. Block Professor for Health Justice and Associate Vice Chair for Research Faculty Development at the University of Chicago's Pritzker School of Medicine
- Wilder Penfield, pioneer of epilepsy neurosurgery who developed the cortical homunculus
- Peter Pronovost, former anesthesiology faculty, Time 100 in 2008, authored over 800 articles and book chapters on patient safety, advisor to the World Health Organization's World Alliance for Patient Safety
- Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa, neurosurgeon and former Johns Hopkins neurosurgery faculty member
- Mark M. Ravitch, surgeon who pioneered modern surgical staples
- Dorothy Reed, pathologist and namesake of Reed–Sternberg cell in Hodgkin's lymphoma
- Dale G. Renlund, cardiologist
- Mark C. Rogers, first director of the pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) at Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1977, authored Rogers' Textbook of Pediatric Intensive Care
- David Sabatini, Howard Hughes Investigator and molecular biologist who discovered mTOR, the mammalian target of rapamycin
- Florence Sabin, anatomist and namesake of Sabin College at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
- Ernest Sachs , neurosurgeon
- Mark Schlissel, president emeritus of the University of Michigan
- Pamela Sklar, neuroscientist and psychiatrist
- Solomon H. Snyder, neuroscientist and Lasker Award winner
- Julie Ann Sosa, professor and chair of the Department of Surgery and the Leon Goldman Distinguished Professor of Surgery at the University of California, San Francisco
- Gertrude Stein, novelist, poet, and playwright
- Charlotte Sumner, neurologist
- Helen B. Taussig, founder of pediatric cardiology, developed Blalock–Taussig shunt, namesake of Taussig College at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
- Vivien Thomas, developed the Blalock–Taussig shunt, namesake of Thomas College at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
- Thomas Turner, microbiologist, archivist, and former dean of Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
- Victor Velculescu, cancer genomics pioneer and entrepreneur
- Bert Vogelstein, oncologist and pioneer in cancer genetics, first explained the role of p53 in cancer
- Rochelle Walensky, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention director
- Myron L. Weisfeldt, cardiologist and former William Osler Professor of Medicine and chairman of the Department of Medicine at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
- David B. Weishampel, paleontologist and author of The Dinosauria
- William H. Welch, pathologist known as the dean of American Medicine, and the first Dean of Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
- Bang Wong, creative director of the Broad Institute at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University
- Hugh Hampton Young, urologist and former Johns Hopkins chair head of urology
- Neal S. Young, chief of the Hematology Branch of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and Director of the Center for Human Immunology at the NIH
- Elias Zerhouni, radiologist and former director of the National Institutes of Health
- Sheila West, ophthalmologist at Wilmer Eye Institute
In popular culture
- The ABC documentary series Hopkins takes a look at the life of the medical staff and students of the Johns Hopkins Hospital and Health System. This new series is a sequel to the 2000 ABC special Hopkins 24/7. Both Hopkins and Hopkins 24/7 were awarded the Peabody Award.
- The movie Something the Lord Made is the story of two men – an ambitious white surgeon, head of surgery at the Johns Hopkins Hospital and a gifted black carpenter turned lab technician – who defied the racial strictures of the Jim Crow South and together pioneered the field of heart surgery.