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List of kings and dukes of Lorraine

List of kings and dukes of Lorraine

The kings and dukes of Lorraine have held different posts under different governments over different regions, since its creation as the kingdom of Lotharingia by the Treaty of Prüm, in 855. The first rulers of the newly established region were kings of the Franks. The Latin construction "Lotharingia" evolved over time into "Lorraine" in French, "Lotharingen" in Dutch and "Lothringen" in German. After the Carolingian kingdom was absorbed into its neighbouring realms in the late ninth century, dukes were appointed over the territory. In the mid-tenth century, the duchy was divided into Lower Lorraine and Upper Lorraine, the first evolving into the historical Low Countries, the second became known as the Duchy of Lorraine and existed well into the modern era.

Kings of Lotharingia

  • Lothair II (855–869)

Charles the Bald claimed Lotharingia on Lothair's death and was crowned king in Metz, but his brother Louis the German opposed his claim and in 870 the Treaty of Mersen divided Lotharingia between the two brothers and subsequently their sons. In 880, the Treaty of Ribemont gave the whole of Lotharingia to Louis the Younger, son of Louis the German.

  • Charles the Bald (869–870), also king of West Francia and Italy, and Carolingian emperor
  • Louis the Younger (880–882), also king of Saxony and Bavaria
  • Charles the Fat (882–887), also king of West Francia, East Francia, Alemannia, Aquitaine and Italy, and Carolingian emperor
  • Arnulf of Carinthia (887–895), also king of East Francia and Italy, and Carolingian emperor
  • Zwentibold (895–900)
  • Louis the Child (900–911), also king of East Francia
  • Charles the Simple (911–923), also king of West Francia

In 925, Lotharingia was subsumed into East Francia.


Dukes of Lorraine

  • Gebhard (903–910)
  • Reginar (910–915)
  • Gilbert (915–939)
  • Henry (939–940)
  • Otto (942–944)
  • Conrad (944–953)
  • Bruno, Archbishop of Cologne (953–965)

In 959, Lorraine was divided into two districts, Lower and Upper Lorraine, each governed by a margrave, under Bruno. Upon Bruno's death in 965, both margraves were recognised as dukes of Lower and Upper Lorraine, respectively. The two duchies remained separate, following separate pathways, except for the brief period between 1033 and 1044.

Dukes of Lower Lorraine

Note that the numbering of the dukes varies between sources.

Matfriding dynasty

  • Godfrey I (959–964)

Carolingian dynasty

  • Charles (976–991)
  • Otto (991–1012)

House of Ardennes–Verdun

  • Godfrey II (1012–1023) (also known as Godfrey I)
  • Gothelo I (1023–1044) (also duke of Upper Lorraine)
  • Gothelo II (1044–1046)

House of Luxembourg

  • Frederick (1046–1065)

House of Ardennes–Verdun

  • Godfrey III the Bearded (1065–1069) (also known as Godfrey II, previously duke of Upper Lorraine)
  • Godfrey IV (1069–1076) (also known as Godfrey III)

Salian dynasty

  • Conrad (1076–1087)

House of Boulogne (Ardennes–Bouillon)

  • Godfrey V "of Bouillon" (1087–1100) (also known as Godfrey IV), one of the leaders of the First Crusade and the first ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem

House of Limburg

  • Henry I (1101–1106)

House of Leuven

  • Godfrey I of Leuven (1106–1129) (also known as Godfrey V)

House of Limburg

  • Waleran (1129–1139)

House of Leuven

  • Godfrey II of Leuven (1139–1142) (also known as Godfrey VI)
  • Godfrey III of Leuven (1142–1190) (also known as Godfrey VII)
Passes to the Duke of Brabant, who until 1795 kept the title "Duke of Lothier".

Dukes of Upper Lorraine

House of Ardenne–Bar

  • Frederick I (959–978)
  • Theodoric I (978–1026/1027)
  • Frederick II (1026/1027)
  • Frederick III (1026/1027–1033)

House of Ardenne–Verdun

  • Gothelo (r. 1033–1044) (also duke of Lower Lorraine).
  • Godfrey, the Bearded (r. 1044–1046) (later duke of Lower Lorraine)

House of Metz (Ardenne–Metz)

House of Anjou

House of Lorraine

Junior branch of the previous rulers of Ardennes–Metz, known as the House of Lorraine

House of Leszczyński

The House of Habsburg-Lorraine continued carrying the title as titular Dukes of Lorraine.

See also

  • Lorraine (duchy)
  • Lorraine (province)
  • Lorraine (region)

External links

  • Titles of the dukes of Lorraine from contemporary documents with bibliography

Further reading

Putnam, Ruth. Alsace and Lorraine: From Cæsar to Kaiser, 58 B.C.-1871 A.D. New York: 1915.

Text submitted to CC-BY-SA license. Source: List of kings and dukes of Lorraine by Wikipedia (Historical)